Bordetella bronchiseptica

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a small Gram-negative bacterial rod.
 
Prevalence
Rare in laboratory rodents. Relatively common inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract of species such as guinea pigs and domestic rabbits. Prevalence in wild rodent and rabbit populations is unknown.
 
Diagnosis
Bacterial cultures of Nasotracheal wash samples or lung tissue samples. ELISA serology testing has been applied and PCR confirmation of suspected cultures or pathological specimens is available.
 
Disease
Natural infection as a result of B.bronchiseptica as a primary agent in mice and rats was reported in the literature prior to 1960s; however these reports may reflect disease as a result of other Bordetella spp and/or other pathogens when the diagnostic techniques are considered. Experimental infection in mice and rats can induce lesions in the respiratory tract. 
 
Strains
Mice and rats with defective innate immune systems may be more susceptible. Guinea pigs, clinical signs are rare but affected guinea pigs may show ruffled coat, laboured breathing, and anorexia.Rabbits, the pathogenicity is uncertain, however it may compound 'snuffles' or be a found as a co-infection with Pasteurella multocida.
 
Screening
Quarterly.
 
Transmission
Aerosol, direct contact, contact with infected nasal secretions, possible transmission from human caretakers.
 
Duration
Carrier status does exist.
 
Durability
Sensitive to environmental conditions, does not survive well outside the host. Susceptible to most common disinfectants.
 
Significance
Clinically ill animals are not suitable for research. Asymptomatic carriers may impact on pulmonary/airway research.
 
Control
Pathogen exclusion by rederivation through caesarean section or embryo transfer onto/into pathogen free dams is recommended.
 
Reading
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica infections of rats and mice. Overview. Bemis, DA et al. CampMed. 2003, 53 (1), 11-20.
  • The Mouse in Biomedical research, Vol. 2: Diseases Fox and Barthold. Second Edn. Elsevier, Inc. 2007.
  • "Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats"- National Academy Press: ISBN 0-309-03794-8.